How Did Islam Spread To The Empires Of West Africa: The Empire Of Kanem Bornu and Hausa Fulani
Islam at Kanem-Bornu Empire
Kanem-Bornu from the 13th century comprised the area around Lake Chad, extending as far north as Fezzan. Kanem now forms the northern area of the Republic of Chad. Islam was approved for the very first time from the Kanem ruler, Umme-Jilmi, who ruled between 1085-1097 C.E., via a scholar called Muhammad B. Mani, blamed for bringing Islam into Kanem-Bornu. He left on a pilgrimage but expired in Egypt before attaining Makkah. Al-Bakri also cites that Umayyad refugees, who’d fled from Baghdad following strategies to liquidate their dynasty in the hands of the Abbasids, were living in Kanem [21, 22].
It was nearly at the same time that a school and also a hostel was created in Cairo, called Madrasah Ibn Rashiq. Towards the end of the 13th century, Kanem became a middle of Islamic wisdom, and famous teachers arrived from Mali to instruct in Kanem. From the middle of the 13th century, Kanem established diplomatic relations with Tuat (at the Algerian Sahara) and also together with all the Hafsid condition of Tunis in embassy level. The Kanem Trainers and scholars could write classical Arabic of an extremely large standard.
It’s said that Dunama II started a Talisman (Munni or Mune), considered sacred by his folks, and consequently brought a period of hardship for his or her people. It was due to his excitement for the faith of Islam that he dedicated this ‘abomination’ (possibly the talisman was a conventional sign of celestial (kingship) and also alienated a lot of his themes).
From the late 14th century, a brand new funding of the Kanem empire was first established in Bornu in Nigazaragamu by ‘Ali b. Dunama, also known as ‘Ali Ghazi, who dominated throughout the period 1476 into 1503. This booming capital lasted until 1811. He had been keen on studying its principles. He used to stop by the main Imam ‘Umar Masramba to find out more about the Islamic legal system. He, by his case, persuaded the nobility and Chiefs to restrict the amount of the wives to just four.
We come to understand about him during his chronicler, Ahmad ibn Fartuwa. He restored the Islamic clinics and forced each, and sundry follow them. Also, he established Qadhis courts to present Islamic laws instead of the conventional system of customary law. He constructed a lot of brick mosques to substitute the present ones, built with reeds.
In 1810 throughout Mai Ahmad that the glories of the Empire of Bornu arrived at the finish, but its significance, as a Middle of Islamic learning, lasted.
Islam in Hausa-Fulani property
There’s a well-known Hausa legend regarding the source of the Hausa country, credited to Bayajida (Bayazid) that arrived from Begh to repay in Kanem-Bornu. The judgment Mai of Bornu of the time (we don’t have any information regarding the time) welcomed Bayajida and gave his daughter in marriage to him but at the same time robbed him of his many followers. He fled from the Mai together with his wife and arrived at Gaya Mai Kano and requested the goldsmith of Kano to make a sword for him. The narrative tells us that Bayajida assisted the people of Kano by murdering a supernatural snake that had prevented them from drawing water from a well. It’s said that the queen, called Daura, wed him in appreciation of his support to the public. Bayajida got a boy called Bawo out of Daura. Whatever might be the virtue of the narrative, it attempts to describe how Hausa culture and language spread across the northern states of Nigeria.
Islam arrived at Hausaland in an ancient 14th century. Approximately 40 Wangarawa graders are believed to have brought Islam with them throughout the reign of ‘Ali Yaji who dominated Kano through the years 1349-1385. A mosque was constructed along with a muedthin (a person that calls to prayer) has been made to provide adthan (call to prayer) and also a judge was called to offer religious conclusions. Throughout the reign of a ruler called, Yaqub (1452-1463), a Fulani migrated to Kano and released novels about Islamic Jurisprudence. From now Muhammad Rumfa came to electricity (1453-1499), Islam was firmly suspended in Kano. In his reign Muslim scholars came into Kano; a few scholars also came from Timbuktu to educate and preach Islam.
Muhammad Rumfa consulted Muslim scholars about the affairs of authorities. It had been he who’d asked the famed Muslim theologian Al-Maghilli to compose a novel on Islamic authorities through the latter’s trip to Kano from the 15th century. The publication is a renowned masterpiece and can be known as The Duty of the Princes. Al-Maghilli afterward went to Katsina, which had turned into a seat of learning from the 15th century. The Majority of the pilgrims from Makkah goes to Katsina.
The literature of Shehu ‘Uthman Dan Fodio, his brother, Abdullahi, along with also his son Muhammad Bello talks about their syncretic practices of this Hausa Fulanis in the close of the 18th century. The motion of ‘Uthman Dan Fodio in 1904 was released as a revivalist movement in Islam to get rid of syncretic practices, and also what Shehu knew as Bid’in al-Shaytaniyya or Devilish Innovations.
The spread of Islam in Africa is due to a lot of things, historic, geographical and emotional, in addition to its consequent distribution of Muslim communities, some of which we’ve attempted to summarize. The scholars that there were Africans straight from the time of its spread. Islam has come to be an African religion, and it has affected her people in varied manners.