History Of Zakat In Islam: Zakat before the Arrival of Islam
The background of Zakat is just like that of Salaah. It’s clear from the Qur’a that enjoy Salaah its directive always existed from the Shari’ah of their preceding Prophets. When the Almighty asked the Muslims to cover it, it wasn’t something unfamiliar to them. Each of the followers of this faith of Ibrahim (AS) were completely conscious of it. For this reason, Surah Al-Ma’arij (70:25) describes it as “A given right.” Therefore it was a preexisting Sunnah that the Prophet Sallallahu Alaihi Wa Sallam, together with essential reformations, upheld in the behest of the Almighty. Therefore it was a preexisting Sunnah that the Prophet Sallallahu Alaihi Wa Sallam, together with essential reformations, upheld in the behest of the Almighty.
The Qur’an gives illustrations in many verses telling us the way Zakat was enforced on the preceding Prophets. For instance:
Zakat of Prophet Isma’il (AS): “And mention in the Book, Ishmael. Indeed, he was true to his promise, and he was a messenger and a prophet. And he used to enjoin on his people prayer and zakah and was to his Lord pleasing.”
[Surah Mariam 19:54-55]
Zakat of the Jews: “And [recall] when We took the covenant from the Children of Israel, [enjoining upon them], “Do not worship except Allah; and to parents do good and to relatives, orphans, and the needy. And speak to people good [words] and establish prayer and give zakah.” Then you turned away, except a few of you, and you were refusing.” [Surah Al-Baqarah 2:83]
Zakat into the progeny of Prophet Ishaaq (AS) and Prophet Yacob (AS): “And We made them leaders guiding by Our command. And We inspired to them the doing of good deeds, the establishment of prayer, and giving of zakah; and they were worshippers of Us.” [Surah Al-Anbiyaa 21:73]
Zakat of Prophet Isa (AS): He said, “Indeed, I am the servant of Allah. He has given me the Scripture and made me a prophet. And He has made me blessed wherever I am and has enjoined upon me prayer and zakah as long as I remain alive. [Surah Maryam 19:30-31]
History Of Zakat In Islam: Zakat at the time of the Prophet Sallallahu Alaihi Wa Sallam.
Going back to the very first application of Zakat in the time of the Prophet Sallallahu Alaihi Wa Sallam is similar to analyzing Zakat in its origin to be able to discover its importance, style of application and effects, whether social, religious or economic.
In Makkah, the writings on Zakat were at the overall kind of voluntary obligations, and it had been left to the religion and the brotherly feelings of people to determine what and how much to invest in Zakat. Surah Al-Ma’arij (70:24-25) counsels: “And those within whose wealth is a known right. For the petitioner and the deprived”
It was just in the second year of Hijrah, some eighteen months following the introduction of the Prophet Sallallahu Alaihi Wa Sallam into Madina that Zakat became a Fard or duty on Muslims. Wa Sallam into Madina that Zakat became a Fard or duty on Muslims. Wa Sallam into Madina that Zakat became a Fard or duty on Muslims. Wa Sallam into Madina that Zakat became a Fard or duty on Muslims. Madinan verses gave clear directives, ordering the payment of Zakat and since then that the Prophet Sallallahu Alaihi Wa Sallam was able to ship out Zakat employees to collect and disperse the expected Zakat.
The Qur’an doesn’t offer the definition of Zakatable riches, but in a few situations, just the overall principles are granted minus the specifics, e.g:
1) Gold and Silver: “O you who have believed, indeed many of the scholars and the monks devour the wealth of people unjustly and avert [them] from the way of Allah . And those who hoard gold and silver and spend it not in the way of Allah – give them tidings of a painful punishment.” (Surah Al-Taubah 9:34)
2) Crops and Fruits: “And He it is who causes gardens to grow, [both] trellised and untrellised, and palm trees and crops of different [kinds of] food and olives and pomegranates, similar and dissimilar. Eat of [each of] its fruit when it yields and give its due [zakah] on the day of its harvest. And be not excessive. Indeed, He does not like those who commit excess.” (Surah al-An’aam 6:141)
3) Profits of Trade: “O you who have believed, spend from the good things which you have earned…” (Surah Al-Baqarah 2:267)
4) Wealth from underneath the ground: “…and from that which We have produced for you from the earth.” (Surah Al-Baqarah 2:267)
What’s more, that the Qur’an cites Zakat generally, and word amwal (i.e. land or riches or getting) is used as in the verse, “Take, [O, Muhammad], from their wealth a charity by which you purify them and cause them increase, and invoke [ Allah ‘s blessings] upon them. Indeed, your invocations are reassurance for them. And Allah is Hearing and Knowing.” (Surah Al-Taubah 9:103) and, “And from their properties was [given] the right of the [needy] petitioner and the deprived.” (Surah Al-Dhareyat 51:19)
It’s the Sunnah of the Prophet Sallallahu Alaihi Wa Sallam which provides us by example and by directives, specifics of this overall Qur’anic command and extends the theoretical axioms of the Qur’ into a living fact. The Prophet Sallallahu Alaihi Wa Sallam is the person who understands most about what Allah ordained and as this Sunnah provides us detailed specifications of those types of Zakatable riches, the minimal exempt of all them and the related prices. The Sunnah also presents the details of the classes of people which should get Zakat.