A Brief History Of Islam – Part 3: The Conquest Of Mecca
The Constitution of Medina – below which the clans are accepting Muhammad as God’s Prophet formed a federation, or an alliance – dates from this period. It revealed that the community’s consciousness had reached a significant point; themselves were described by its members as a community separate. The Constitution described non-Muslims’ function locally. Jews, by way of instance, were a part of their community; they had been dhimmis, which is, secure individuals, so long as they conformed to its laws. This created a precedent throughout the conquests for its treatment of subject individuals. Jews and Christians, upon payment of a taxation, were granted while preserving their standing since non-Muslims and, freedom were members of the nation. This status didn’t use to polytheists, who couldn’t be tolerated.
Ibn Ishaq, among the first biographers of the Prophet, says it was roughly the time that Muhammad sent letters to the rulers of this ground – the King of Persia, the Emperor of Byzantium, the Negus of Abyssinia, as well as the Governor of Egypt amongst others – encouraging them to submit to Islam. Nothing illustrates the confidence of the community that is little, as its power, regardless of the battle of the Trench, was negligible. But its confidence wasn’t misplaced. Muhammad built up a succession of alliances that, by 628, followers and he could demand access. This was a milestone in the history of the Muslims. A brief time before, Muhammad left the city of his birth to set up an Islamic state. Now his enemies were treating him as a leader in his right. A year later he reentered and conquered Mecca, in a spirit of tolerance, which established an ideal for conquests and without bloodshed. Also, he destroyed the idols to put an end forever there. At precisely the same time ‘Amr Ibn al-as, the future conqueror of Egypt, and Khalid Ibn al-Walid, the future “Sword of God,” accepted Islam, and swore allegiance to Muhammad. As these men had been among Muhammad’s most bitter opponents a brief time, their conversion was noteworthy.
Muhammad’s back to Mecca was the climax of his mission. In 632, just three decades later, he was suddenly taken ill and on June 8 of that year, with his third wife Aisha in attendance, the Messenger of God “died with the heat of noon.”
Muhammad’s death was a loss. To his followers, this man from Mecca was far more than the leader who had forged a state, a lot more than a gifted administrator, a lot more than a friend. Muhammad was also the exemplar of the teachings he had brought them from God: the teachings of the Quran, which, for centuries, have guided the thought and action, the faith and conduct, of innumerable women and men, and which ushered in a distinctive era in the history of mankind. His death, to transmit the Quran, and no effect whatsoever on his mission: nevertheless, had little influence on the society he had created in Arabia. As Abu Bakr put it: “Whoever worshiped Muhammad, let him know that Muhammad is dead, but whoever worshiped God, let him know that God lives and dies not.”